A person is diagnosed with a subtype of schizophrenia on the basis of most prominent symptoms. Same person may have different symptoms over the course of illness therefore may move from one subtype to another. There are several types /subtypes of schizophrenia, some of which are:
This is the most common subtype. Paranoid Schizophrenia is characterized by feeling of suspicion, persecution or grandiose, or it could be a combination of these emotions. The main characteristic feature of the paranoid subtype is the presence of auditory hallucinations or prominent delusional thoughts about persecution or conspiracy against him. In this type of schizophrenia the patient has false beliefs called delusions that some individual or group of people is conspiring to harm him or members of his family. People with paranoid schizophrenia usually have less disordered thinking and behavior and higher level of ability to manage life and functioning than other schizophrenia. Such people may not look ‘odd’ other than feeling of unjust or aggression. Nature and severity of symptoms may range from mild to severe. In severe form there may be disorganization of thoughts reflecting in speech and behavior.
Disorganized Schizophrenia is characterized by incoherence of speech and thoughts. There are thoughts, speech and behavior which are inappropriate and incomprehensible. There can be purposeless or aggressive behavior. Hallucinations and delusions are less or even absent. Person with disorganized schizophrenia find it difficult to maintain daily life. There may be lack of emotional stability or no emotional expression at all. Socially inappropriate behavior may create social awkwardness. There can be impairment of communication.
Catatonic schizophrenia is characterized by disturbance in posture and movement which can show as withdrawn or mute state or abnormal posture and movement. It is rare subtype. Person may assume odd position. There can be repetitive or purposeless activity symptoms of echolalia (repeating words of others) or echopraxia (mimicking movements of others). They may maintain a pose or position for a long period of time.
The Undifferentiated Schizophrenia is diagnosed when people have symptoms of schizophrenia but not specific enough to classify as other subtype. It can be stable condition of mixed symptoms or fluctuating symptom picture.
Residual Schizophrenia is characterized by the state when the person no longer has delusions or hallucinations but shows no motivation or interest in life. Idiosyncrasies in behavior may be present but they are not pronounced